While director of the Cincinnati Observatory in Cincinnati, Ohio, he developed a system of telegraphic weather reports, daily weather maps, and weather forecasts. In 1870, Congress established the U.S. Weather Bureau and inaugurated the use of daily weather forecasts. In recognition of his work, Abbe, who was often referred to as “Old Probability” for the reliability of his forecasts, was appointed the first head of the new service, and is considered the father of the National Weather Service.
A participant in the U.S. Air Force‘s Man in Space Soonest and X-20 Dyna-Soar human spaceflight programs, Armstrong joined the NASA Astronaut Corps in 1962. He made his first space flight as command pilot of Gemini 8 in March 1966, becoming NASA’s first civilian astronaut to fly in space. He performed the first docking of two spacecraft, with pilot David Scott. This mission was aborted after Armstrong used some of his reentry control fuel to prevent a dangerous spin caused by a stuck thruster, in the first in-flight space emergency.
Armstrong’s second and last spaceflight was as commander of Apollo 11, the first manned Moon landing mission in July 1969. Armstrong and Lunar Module pilot Buzz Aldrin descended to the lunar surface and spent two and a half hours outside the spacecraft, while Michael Collins remained in lunar orbit in the Command/Service Module. Along with Collins and Aldrin, Armstrong was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Richard Nixon. President Jimmy Carter presented Armstrong the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978. Armstrong and his former crewmates received the Congressional Gold Medal in 2009.
He accepted a teaching position in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Cincinnati.
She served as a scientific and policy advisor for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health from 1972 to 1976, in the Department of Labor as an advisor on coke oven emissions and carcinogens (1973–75), in the National Academy of Sciences‘ Lead in Paint Commission (1974–75), in the Food and Drug Administration, and in the Environmental Protection Agency (1976–77).
President Jimmy Carter appointed her Director of OSHA, and she served through his administration, between 1977 and 1981. During her administration of OSHA notable regulatory activity included revised occupational lead exposure standard and promulgation of regulations on workers’ “right to know” about workplace hazards. She later served as Vice President and University Dean for Graduate Studies and Research at the University of Cincinnati (1982–1990), and as a distinguished professor of environmental health at the University of Cincinnati.
Moore was a pediatric nurse by training, and, following humanitarian work in Germany and Morocco, she was one of the earliest volunteers for the Peace Corps. She served in Togo during the 1960s and was accompanied by her husband and fellow Peace Corps volunteer, Mike.
Large-scale clinical trials of oral polio virus vaccine (OPV) in the United States in April 1960 on 180,000 Cincinnati school children. The mass immunization techniques that Sabin pioneered with his associates effectively eradicated polio in Cincinnati.