While director of the Cincinnati Observatory in Cincinnati, Ohio, he developed a system of telegraphic weather reports, daily weather maps, and weather forecasts. In 1870, Congress established the U.S. Weather Bureau and inaugurated the use of daily weather forecasts. In recognition of his work, Abbe, who was often referred to as “Old Probability” for the reliability of his forecasts, was appointed the first head of the new service, and is considered the father of the National Weather Service.
Charles David Allis (born March 22, 1951) is an American molecular biologist, and is currently the Joy and Jack Fishman Professor and Head of the Laboratory of Chromatin Biology and Epigenetics at The Rockefeller University. In pursuit of understanding the DNA–histone protein complex and the intricate system which allows for gene activation, the Allis lab focuses on chromatin signaling via histone modifications – acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation. Allis is best known for deciphering regulatory mechanisms that impinge upon the fundamental repeating unit of chromatin and for identifying the responsible enzyme systems that govern the covalent modifications of histone proteins, the principal components that organize chromatin. Allis discovered the critical link, through histone acetyltransferase-containing transcriptional coactivators, between targeted histone acetylation and gene-specific transcriptional activation. In further studies, he linked histone phosphorylation events to mitosis and mitogen action, established a synergy between histone phosphorylation and acetylation events and elaborated the ‘histone code hypothesis’ (and extensions thereof), one of the most highly cited theories governing epigenetics.
Richard Allison (1757 – March 22, 1816) was Physician General of the U.S. Army, the position that later became Surgeon General, from 1792 to 1796. He was the first physician to set up a permanent practice in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and the first person to walk on the Moon. He was also an aerospace engineer, naval aviator, test pilot, and university professor. Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong was an officer in the U.S. Navy and served in the Korean War. After the war, he earned his bachelor’s degree at Purdue University and served as a test pilot at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) High-Speed Flight Station, where he logged over 900 flights. He later completed graduate studies at the University of Southern California.
A participant in the U.S. Air Force‘s Man in Space Soonest and X-20 Dyna-Soar human spaceflight programs, Armstrong joined the NASA Astronaut Corps in 1962. He made his first space flight as command pilot of Gemini 8 in March 1966, becoming NASA’s first civilian astronaut to fly in space. He performed the first docking of two spacecraft, with pilot David Scott. This mission was aborted after Armstrong used some of his reentry control fuel to prevent a dangerous spin caused by a stuck thruster, in the first in-flight space emergency.
Armstrong’s second and last spaceflight was as commander of Apollo 11, the first manned Moon landing mission in July 1969. Armstrong and Lunar Module pilot Buzz Aldrin descended to the lunar surface and spent two and a half hours outside the spacecraft, while Michael Collins remained in lunar orbit in the Command/Service Module. Along with Collins and Aldrin, Armstrong was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Richard Nixon. President Jimmy Carter presented Armstrong the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978. Armstrong and his former crewmates received the Congressional Gold Medal in 2009.
He accepted a teaching position in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Cincinnati.
Charles J. Bates (May 4, 1930 – September 28, 2006) was an American food scientist who was involved in the development of baking formulas for angel food and devil’s food cake, while working for Procter & Gamble, then later developed high fructose corn syrup sweetener for Coca-Cola. Away from his research, Bates was also involved with the Boy Scouts of America in Indiana, earning numerous awards.
Amanda Elaine Bauer (born 26 May 1979) is an American professional astronomer and science communicator, currently working in Australia. She is a Research Astronomer at Australia’s largest optical observatory, the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO), where her principal field of research concerns how galaxies form, how they create new stars, and particularly why they stop creating new stars. She is better known to the public through her efforts as the AAO Public Outreach Officer.
Piotr Chomczynski (born November 6, 1942) is founder and director of Molecular Research Center and former professor of biochemistry at the University of Cincinnati. Dr. Chomczynski is one of the most quoted scientists by other other scientists in the world due to his technique on the single-step method of RNA extraction.
Robin Thomas Cotton (born May 13, 1941) is an English physician who is well known for his work in pediatric otolaryngology. He is currently the Director of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio.
The theory of martingales was developed by Doob.
Daniel Drake (October 20, 1785 – November 5, 1852) was a pioneering American physician and prolific writer. In 1819 he helped organize the Medical College of Ohio in Cincinnati which later became the University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center, where he served as a President. He secured a state appropriation for its support and that of a hospital.
Eula Bingham was born in Covington, Kentucky, in 1929. She earned a B.S. in 1951 in Chemistry and Biology from Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, Kentucky; an M.S. in 1954 in Physiology from the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio; and a Ph.D. in 1958 in Zoology, also from the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. She began her career at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine in 1961 as a researcher who did pioneering work on chemical carcinogens. She contributed more than one hundred peer reviewed articles on occupational and environmental respiratory hazards; chemical carcinogenesis and related topics; and occupational and environmental health policy.
She served as a scientific and policy advisor for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health from 1972 to 1976, in the Department of Labor as an advisor on coke oven emissions and carcinogens (1973–75), in the National Academy of Sciences‘ Lead in Paint Commission (1974–75), in the Food and Drug Administration, and in the Environmental Protection Agency (1976–77).
President Jimmy Carter appointed her Director of OSHA, and she served through his administration, between 1977 and 1981. During her administration of OSHA notable regulatory activity included revised occupational lead exposure standard and promulgation of regulations on workers’ “right to know” about workplace hazards. She later served as Vice President and University Dean for Graduate Studies and Research at the University of Cincinnati (1982–1990), and as a distinguished professor of environmental health at the University of Cincinnati.
Henry Judah Heimlich; February 3, 1920 – December 17, 2016) was an American thoracic surgeon and medical researcher. He is widely credited as the inventor of the Heimlich maneuver, a technique of abdominal thrusts for stopping choking, described in Emergency Medicine in 1974. He also invented the Micro Trach portable oxygen system for ambulatory patients and the Heimlich Chest Drain Valve, or “flutter valve,” which drains blood and air out of the chest cavity
Karl Gordon Henize[p], Ph.D. (17 October 1926 – 5 October 1993) was an American astronomer, space scientist, NASA astronaut, and professor at Northwestern University. He was stationed at several observatories around the world, including McCormick Observatory, Lamont-Hussey Observatory (South Africa), Mount Wilson Observatory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and Mount Stromlo Observatory (Australia). He was in the Astronaut Support Crew for Apollo 15 and Skylab 2, 3 and 4. As a Mission Specialist on the Spacelab-2 mission (STS-51-F), he flew on Space Shuttle Challenger in July/August 1985. He was awarded the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal in 1974.
Robert William Kistner (August 23, 1917 – February 6, 1990), was a well-known gynecologist who specialized in the treatment of endometriosis and was involved in the early development of the birth control pill.
Thomas Samuel Kuhn ; July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.
John William Mauchly (August 30, 1907 – January 8, 1980) was an American physicist who, along with J. Presper Eckert, designed ENIAC, the first general purpose electronic digital computer, as well as EDVAC, BINAC and UNIVAC I, the first commercial computer made in the United States.
Moore was a pediatric nurse by training, and, following humanitarian work in Germany and Morocco, she was one of the earliest volunteers for the Peace Corps. She served in Togo during the 1960s and was accompanied by her husband and fellow Peace Corps volunteer, Mike.
Dr. Joseph ‘Joe’ Ransohoff, II (July 1, 1915 – January 30, 2001) was a member of the Ransohoff family and a pioneer in the field of neurosurgery. In addition to training numerous neurosurgeons, his “ingenuity in adapting advanced technologies” saved many lives and even influenced the television program Ben Casey. Among other innovations, he created the first intensive care unit dedicated to neurosurgery, pioneered the use of medical imaging and catheterization in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors, and helped define the fields of pediatric neurosurgery and neuroradiology
George Rieveschl (January 9, 1916 – September 27, 2007) was an American chemist and professor. He was the inventor of the popular antihistamine diphenhydramine (Benadryl), which he first made during a search for synthetic alternatives to scopolamine.
Albert Bruce Sabin (August 26, 1906 – March 3, 1993) was a Polish American medical researcher, best known for developing the oral polio vaccine which has played a key role in nearly eradicating the disease. By 1946, he had become the head of Pediatric Research at the University of Cincinnati.
Large-scale clinical trials of oral polio virus vaccine (OPV) in the United States in April 1960 on 180,000 Cincinnati school children. The mass immunization techniques that Sabin pioneered with his associates effectively eradicated polio in Cincinnati.
Charles Henry Turner (1867-1923) A native of Cincinnati, Ohio, Turner received a B.S. (1891) and M.S. (1892) from the University of Cincinnati and a Ph.D. (1907) from the University of Chicago. A noted authority on the behavior of insects, he was the first researcher to prove that insects can hear.